Interactive practices in art are evolving. The perception of art has always required the viewer’s attention in various ways in a wide range of active or passive states. What was envisioned and presupposed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by some of the representatives of Symbolism, Dada, Fluxus, Happening, Cybernetic and Kinetic Art, Op Art and Structuralism, ultimately led to a manifesto of ideas for the direct participation of the audience, art as a process and the immateriality of a work of art. Reaching the form of an “open work of art”, the roles of artist, work and viewer change radically. Inclusive art from the pre-electronic period is moving into interactive art forms on a new level with the help of digital technologies. Interaction, participation and communication are central themes of 20th century art, especially in the second half. Information from the social becomes an aesthetic event, and in some cases appears as both at the same time. Some contemporary artistic practices are structured by the analysis and use of data floating in the general information flow. In order to influence an interactive installation with its actions, the participant within its scope does not need to do so with direct physical intervention. The participant does not need to be aware of their possible contribution. This is the nature of the dataficated interaction. The concept is in accordance with the principles on which the digital economy operates, the systems for automated solutions, the omnipotence of data surveillance, and the electronic fabric of the consumer-user information footprint. The actualised interaction is a consequence of the human-computer symbiosis, which is not based on choice, but on their existence in togetherness.
TYPES OF RELIEF ACCORDING TO THEIR HEIGHT AND THE PRINCIPLES OF THEIR CONSTRUCTION
This article offers a means of understanding and categorising types of relief in order to bring a clear and objective vision to the subject. It seeks an overall understanding of relief rather than detailing specific and concrete definitions. Examples of different types of relief are given from various sources, and the difficulties in categorising types of relief using the traditional criteria of art theory are considered. In response to this, the concept and term ‘reverse slope’ is introduced as an alternative criterion for distinguishing high-relief from low-relief. Furthermore, a second significant distinction is made between two different approaches to relief, tentatively referred to in the article as the ‘principle of the rippled plane’ and the ‘compressed space principle’. The fundamental differences between these two approaches are shown, and each one is explained and explored through the notion of “spatial planes”.
DIMO ZAIMOV. MONUMENTAL WORKS WITH FIGURATIVE CHARACTER
The article is dedicated to the monumental works of Dimo Zaimov. The works with figurative character are typologised. They are completely ‘naturе-resembling’. The factors that unite them do not stem from the technique used. The basis of their grouping is the nature of the form, the essence of the pictorial space and the relation to the architectural environment. In the main, in terms of specificity and impact, these works are characterised by high informativity and recognisability of the image. On the whole, the monumental realisations of Dimo Zaimov are classified according to both the degree of recognisability and their connection with architecture.
Art and Fashion
OPPOSITION OR COOPERATION
RUSSIAN CONSTRUCTIVISM, FUNCTIONALISM AND CLOTHING
A radical approach to clothing design after the Great October Socialist Revolution of 1917
The aggressive opposition of constructivists and productivists to fashion is defined in the following popular line: “Fashion, by its very nature, is a bourgeois phenomenon and as such must die along with the class that produced it.” The debate on clothing, which took place in the years following 1917, could not be considered in isolation from the controversy over the role of art in the new communist society that was beginning to be built. For productivists, the most radical trend in the Russian avant-garde, utility is the only valid criterion by which the existence of an artistic activity can be justified in the communist future. “Pure” art, which has no social application, is considered socially unacceptable in a revolutionary society and should therefore not survive. For productivists, as well as for some constructivists, the disappearance of traditional art is inevitable.